… one another” (167); impose penalties for personal assault, “…the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out” (196); and punish crime, “…guilty of fraud…be convicted…” (265).
The nature of the penalties in Hammurabi’s Code ranges from fines in the case of agriculture and commerce to physical punishment and death in the case of what was considered serious moral offenses. Examining these ancient laws from a modern perspective, it appears that the laws pertaining to agriculture, commerce and inheritance were very just and strove to distribute equitable justice. However, in the case of ‘moral’ offenses, some of …
… it was a state that was open to reform and progress unlike the regimented Spartan way of life.
Modern civilization owes the very concept of democratic government to the ancient Greeks, besides other rich contributions such as having founded the very concept of ‘philosophy’ and sciences such as mathematics, meta-physics etc. Greek literature, too, has made a significant impact and is widely read even today for its richness in thought about human life.