This is the world of materialization. We design the materials that we read and understand as an ability to make things out of everyday life. The designs are based on abstract ideas which may be an implication or a representative of cultural society or a civilization. Textbook is an essential learning skill in the classroom with well designed basic syllabuses, ready to use phrases and templates according to the client needs.
A Functional Task-Based Syllabus:
The syllabus is more particularized material that designates a plan for specific audience which outlines or describes the course. The syllabus conveys specific goals, activities to be carried out in a well defined context. Designing the material involves examining needs analyses and establishing goals. It then entails the section, grading and sequencing of the material and other content and division of content into units and manageable material.
Functional task-based syllabus is a widely embraced type of syllabus. It contains a list of tasks (for example: instructing or giving directions) that addressees perform. Organizing communicative functions such as identifying, reporting, correcting, describing makes the learner use language meaningfully and to complete the task through which acquire language. Task-based teaching operates with the concept that, while the conscious mind is working out some of the meaning content, a subconscious part of mind perceives abstracts or acquires some (Prabhu 1987).
Lexical based syllabus is the syllabus which is in most common use and has been encouraged by COBOUILD project. The proposed lexical syllabus actually stands on a body of research into natural language relative to pedagogic grammars. In every slot virtually any word can occur. Since language is supposed to function simultaneously on several levels, there is an extremely complex pattern of options in progress at any one moment, but the fundamental principle is simple though. (Helen Basturkmen).
A lexical syllabus illustrates a lot of merits when match up with traditional syllabuses such as structural, notional / functional etc…. After a short term a structural syllabus has zilch to offer for a beginner apart from elaborate specifications of structure, whereas lexical syllabus is very rich and can be exploited at all levels.
The type of lexical syllabus which is constructed on the basis of word frequency provides a powerful basis for learner centered approach as learners’ active involvement will be required. A lexical description of language offers a powerful basis for syllabus specification because,
- It mainly concerns the communication
- It instructs the language patterns as they are used by the native-speakers
- It also teaches fixed or set phrases
- It takes it into consideration that language is learnt by combining sounds and structures.
- In it, learners are expected to engage with texts and construct innovate lexical items.
- It stimulates the language awareness
- Native-like fluency as well as accuracy is cared.
Use of lexical collocations does not show significant correlation with either knowledge of lexical collocations or the speaking proficiency in the study. The subjects with lexical phrases are limited to English major-junior learners in many learning institutes. It is also feared that it surpass other EFL courses greatly so that usage of other courses may drop down.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington DC 1988
Materials and Design By M. F. Ashby, Kara Johnson
Discourse and Context in Language Teaching By Marianne Celce-Murcia, Elite Olshtain
English for Academic Purposes by R. R. Jordan
Ideas and Options in English for specific purpose By Helen Basturkmen
Reactions and Predictions (Special issue) by Prabhu N.S. 1980