In the chapter ‘Beyond materialism’, Miller’s primary argument focuses on the idea that modern human life has reached a point of ‘absolute materialism’ wherein it is believed that all aspects of life can be explained through a scientific theory. Science has trumped religion in the recent past since it caters to the basic human need to feel connected to reality. For instance, as science’s medicines offers relief from real pain, this result-oriented mechanism seems more suited to human needs. Deterministic reductionism eliminates the need for divine intervention to explain previously incomprehensible events as science explains it clearly now, gradually paving the way for god’s disappearance or rather eliminating the human need for god’s existence. However, quantum mechanics, a branch of science itself considers certain aspects of matter at a subatomic level to be inexplicable since their behavior is innately unpredictable.
Miller explains how human perception has changed over time; while order and self-sufficiency in the universe were previously seen as arguments against God, it is now seen as proof of God’s ability as a divine architect who creates and sustains life. While modern theists are primarily concerned about establishing God’s control over human life, the concept of freewill is in accordance with the uncertainty element explained by quantum physics. Since deists merely attribute God to the creation of the universe, he borrows the phrase “retired clockmaker” to criticize deistic philosophy; he also mentions that creationists dwell on past acts to justify the present existence of God.
While Miller mentions the atheist argument that dismisses the presence of God through science, he also adds that “breaks in causality at the atomic level” might even force staunch scientists to perceive it as “the mind of God”. If events in the atomic level of the universe cannot be predicted, then the transpiring events of the universe would also face the same plight. Miller refers to materialistic science’s inability to understand the complexity of the elementary structure of the universe as a “curious, inherent limitation”.