In this project we will look at various studies used to determine how mood and emotions influence purchasing decisions. Marketing and retail executives have long been on the search to discover how mood influences purchasing decisions. This information is beneficial for retailers, major developers and consumers. Retailers can utilize the information to create an environment in which consumers feel comfortable making purchases, developers can use the information to build facilities with retailers needs in mind and consumers can use the information to be aware of how their mood may affect their purchasing decisions. Studies that have looked at this relationship as well as information used to evaluate purchasing decisions are vital toward creating a healthy and successful marketing strategy as well as consumer economy.
This literature review will detail ten sources of research that can be used to learn about how and if mood influences purchasing decisions. After reading the information that is currently available about this topic a clearer relationship between feelings and consumption can be outlined. The first section will outline research concerning consumption and the many variables that influence purchasing decisions. In order to understand the relationship between purchasing and personal mood it is important to understand the process of consumption. The second section will be primarily related to emotional consumption, retail therapy and ways in which shopping has been linked to emotions. Although it may seems that the concept of shopping is relatively simple there may be much philosophy and emotional theory involved in shopping patterns. The final section will address the current findings that link shopping and mood. This section will draw upon the current science regarding consumer patterns and the emotions behind them.
SECTION ONE: Consumption
Cognitions in Compulsive Buying and Acquisition. Cognitive Therapy & Research: “Compulsive buying is a disabling condition associated with a chronic failure to control the urge to purchase objects. Compulsive buying is closely related to major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and in particular, compulsive hoarding. Like compulsive hoarding, compulsive buying is thought to be influenced by a range of cognitive domains including deficits in decision-making, emotional attachments to objects and erroneous beliefs about possessions, and other maladaptive beliefs, (Kyrios, 2004).” This source will be used to outline compulsive consumption. We will use it to look at normal consumption patterns as opposed to compulsive ones.
On-Line Product Presentation: Effects on Mood, Perceived Risk, and Purchase Intention:
“Because the Internet purchase of apparel is risky, there is a strong need to develop better visual product presentation on-line that may give some sense of fit and other tactile experience to reduce perceived risk and create pleasurable shopping experiences. Toward this end, the effect of product presentation on consumer responses was examined here. In addition, the relationships among variables were investigated to provide details of the nature of the effect of product presentation, (Park, 2005).” This article gives information concerning normal consumption patterns and how on-line layout can be used to manipulate those patterns.
SECTION TWO: Emotional Consumption
Looking alright, feeling alright: emotions, sizing and the geographies of women’s experiences of clothing consumption:
“Recent work within geographies of consumption has focused on the practices of consumption as a means to find out ‘what people do when they go shopping’. This paper argues that few of these accounts of consumption have considered the significance of emotions in understanding the intricacies of consumer experience. Drawing on material from research about women’s experiences of clothes shopping this paper, therefore, utilizes recent work in the social sciences which understands emotions not as inherent or as induced by practices or commodities and instead emphasizes the inter-subjective nature of emotions whereby emotions are self-reflective, involving active perception, identification and management on the part of individuals, (Colls, 2004).”
When a Better Self is Only a Button Click Away: Association Between Materialistic Values, Emotional and Identity-Related Buying Motives, and Compulsive Buying Tendency Online:
“Compulsive buying of consumer goods increasingly occurs in conventional shops and stores, but has also started to emerge when people buy online. Extending previous research (e.g., Dittmar, 2005a, b), a model of vulnerability factors is proposed whereby the endorsement of materialistic values predicts individuals’ seeking to enhance their emotions and identity when they buy goods, which, in turn, predicts tendencies toward compulsive buying, (Dittmar, 2007).”
Mirtazapine-Induced Shopping Spree. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry:
SECTION THREE: Studies of Emotions Influencing Consumption
Compulsive Buying Disorder: Definition, Assessment, Epidemiology and Clinical Management:
“Compulsive buying disorder is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviors regarding shopping and spending, which lead to adverse consequences. Compulsive buying disorder has been estimated to affect from two to eight percent of the general adult population in the US; 80 to 95 percent of those affected are female. Onset occurs in the late teens or early twenties, and the disorder is generally chronic. Psychiatric co-morbidity is frequent, particularly mood, anxiety, substance use, eating and personality disorders, (Black, 2001).” This article outlines one of the major causes of emotionally linked consumption, compulsive buying disorder.
In the mood to buy: Differences in the mood states experienced by compulsive buyers and other consumers:
“One area of consumption disorders receiving a great deal of attention lately is compulsive buying. Researchers have begun moving from descriptive studies of this phenomenon to attempts to explain some of its causal mechanisms. One possible explanation is that such behavior may serve as a way of self-medicating depression and negative affect for compulsive buyers. This study examines reported mood states prior to and during shopping for 24 compulsive buyers and a matched comparison group. The findings indicated that relative to the comparison group, the compulsive buyers reported feeling most of the mood states more frequently prior to going shopping, especially the more negative moods, (Faber, 1996).”
The impact of shopper mood and retail salesperson credibility on shopper attitudes and behavior: This article will be used to address the relationship between mood and salesperson presentation on purchase making decisions.
The effects of mood, involvement, and quality of store experience on shopping intentions: This article outlines how a store and its designs and atmosphere influence a shopper based on the shopper’s intentions.
Based on these sources above, I plan to construct a series of experiments and surveys to determine if there is a direct correlation between mood and shopping. To do this I intend to set up a scenario where shoppers are introduced to both pleasant and unpleasant sounds and smells during a shopping outing. I can then record the number of people within the store and the amount of and price of their purchases. In addition, customers will be asked to fill out a four question survey that asks about their shopping experience. In addition, I’d like to interview 20 random shoppers and ask them if they have ever therapeutically shopped and what that means to them. Once the answers have been established a clear vision of consumer patterns should emerge.
In conclusion, this organizational assignment is part of the overall process of determining how and if mood makes a dramatic impact on purchasing decisions. If so, how are they utilized and who can benefit from them.
Black, D. (2001, January). Compulsive Buying Disorder: Definition, Assessment, Epidemiology and Clinical Management. CNS Drugs, 15(1), 17-27. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
Colls, R. (2004, December). ‘Looking alright, feeling alright’: emotions, sizing and the geographies of women’s experiences of clothing consumption. Social & Cultural Geography, 5(4), 583-596. Retrieved February 23, 2009, doi:10.1080/1464936042000317712
Dittmar, H., Long, K., & Bond, R. (2007, March). WHEN A BETTER SELF IS ONLY A BUTTON CLICK AWAY: ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN MATERIALISTIC VALUES, EMOTIONAL AND IDENTITY-RELATED BUYING MOTIVES, AND COMPULSIVE BUYING TENDENCY ONLINE. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 26(3), 334-361. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
Faber, R., & Christenson, G. (1996, December). In the mood to buy: Differences in the mood states experienced by compulsive buyers and other consumers. Psychology & Marketing, 13(8), 803-820. Retrieved February 23, 2009, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199612)13:8<803::AID-MAR6>3.3.CO;2-2
Kyrios, M., Frost, R., & Steketee, G. (2004, April). Cognitions in Compulsive Buying and Acquisition. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 28(2), 241-258. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
Park, J., Lennon, S., & Stoel, L. (2005, September). On-Line Product Presentation: Effects on Mood, Perceived Risk, and Purchase Intention. Psychology & Marketing, 22(9), 695-719. Retrieved February 17, 2009, doi:10.1002/mar.20080
Prost, E., & Abraham, G. (2004, July). Mirtazapine-Induced Shopping Spree. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 49(7), 495-495. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from PsycINFO database.
Swinyard, W. (1995, October). The impact of shopper mood and retail salesperson credibility on shopper attitudes and behaviour. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 5(4), 488-503. Retrieved February 23, 2009, doi:10.1080/09593969500000028
Swinyard, W. (1993, September). The effects of mood, involvement, and quality of store experience on shopping intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 271-280. Retrieved February 23, 2009, doi:10.1086/209348