… Public Administration
Question #1: Implementation
On the most basic level, implementation is the action of putting a theory or concept into motion. Implementation involves many elements, including decision-making, communications, politics, budgeting, intergovernmental relations, public administrators professional expertise, ethics and the general environment. This essay will explore two of these elements, ethics and communications. After some brief comments on the precise definition of implementation, we will look at the Challenger case in relation to ethics, and we will look at the Bakersfield case in relation to communications.
The term implementation is often used to describe activities …
… the field of sociology. Sociologist Max Weber laid the foundations for modern discussions and understandings of bureaucracy (Macionis). Bureaucracy is the administrative apparatus of modern civilization, whether in the private or public sector. This form of organization has often been caricatured in popular understanding, which defines bureaucracy as an organization that is present wherever six key characteristics are found: division of labor, hierarchy, written documents, staff of experts, full working capacity of the official, and the presence of general rules of operation. Attempts to modernize so-called underdeveloped countries, however, shows that the sum of these characteristics is not modern …