Tag: measurement

Measurement and Assessment in Education

Measurement and Assessment in Education

Measurement and assessment are core elements of the process of learning. They help a teacher to make decisions about the methods of teaching employed and the progress of the learner relative to the set objectives. [McMillan, p. 1] In order to adequately measure the academic achievements of the learners, a teacher may use a single or a combination of two or more methods of assessment. [p. 51]. For instance, Yih-Fen Chen and Michael A. Martin posit that teachers can use both traditional and authentic assessment methods to measure the academic achievement of their learners. However, they assert that traditional methods are not reliable as they do not reflect on current theories of learning cognition, they are not based on abilities that learners need for their future and that that they tend to focus more on a product versus the processes used in learning. They therefore call upon for the use of more authentic assessment methods which are flexible and can reflect current theories of learning and cognition. The use of these authentic assessment methods will serve to supplement the traditional assessment, particularly in areas where the ‘paper-and-pencil’ assessment cannot be effective, e.g. in art and social development skills. In their article they single out performance and portfolio assessments as examples of authentic assessment which can be applied separately or together to bring desirable outcomes unlike the traditional methods. [Chen & Martin, 2000]

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Crime Measurement Essay

Crime Measurement Essay

Crime is any act or activity that is in violation of the rule of law. Violation of the established laws or rules is punishable by law and the amount and intensity of the punishment is dependent on states and the seriousness of the harm done. Measuring the level of crime is an activity that is done by any government to assess the level of crime and the effectiveness of its crime control mechanisms. If the statistics show that the level of crime in a specific country is on the increase then it means that something must be done either, the crime control mechanisms be strengthened or other factors such as economic, environmental and social factors be considered. Measuring crime is done by use of various measurement methods such as Uniform Crime Report (UCR), self reporting method and National Crime Victimization survey (NCVS) Most of crime measurement surveys rely on police records rather than the number of those in jails and prisons. This research paper is going to mainly focus on the crime measurement methods, how data used in crime measurement is collected and the shortcomings of each method. The paper will also try to analyze the reasons why it is important to measure crime prevalence.

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