Tag: philosophy

Marxism – Althusser and Jameson Essay

Marxism – Althusser and Jameson Essay

Utopia and ideology are two most important concepts when it comes to deal with the Marxist thoughts and philosophy. The historical construction of both of these thoughts was refined through the philosophical writings of Marx and his contemporaries. Jameson’s writings on Utopia have been focused more on the failures of the Utopia rather than exploiting its strengths and weaknesses. However, both the concepts of Utopia as well as ideology are often linked and intervened with each other in the work of Jameson. His basic idea of utopia is based on the assumption that an ideological formation in any given culture or society is not possible without being implicitly considered as utopian. (Buchanan). He considered utopia both as a far cry for the future and at the same time “indictment for present” because utopia in a society can serve dual purposes. (Buchanan). Before a revolution, utopia can serve as a strong force for creating a collective vision however, in an era after revolution; it can be counter-revolutionary in nature.

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Karl Marx And Self-Alienation Essay

Karl Marx And Self-Alienation Essay

In relation to Nietzsche’s view concerning the significance of religious laws, as what is being referred to in the first stage of spiritual metamorphosis, wherein Nietzsche explains that “There are many heavy things for the spirit […] its strength longs for the heavy, for the heaviest. […] like a camel hurrying into the desert, […]” [Kaufmann 54], Karl Marx’s refers to religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of the heartless world, […] the spirit of spiritless conditions [Easton and Guddat 250];

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Doubt and Its Function in Philosophy

Doubt and Its Function in Philosophy

Rene Descartes, in his “First Meditation” entitled “What Can Be Called into Doubt within his book Meditations on First Philosophy lies down the foundation for his brand of rationalism as he posits that ‘the mind or reason is the only faculty of the human body that will allow an individual to possess ‘certain and indubitable’ beliefs that will serve as the foundation of ‘a firm and abiding superstructure’ of knowledge acquisition’ (1996, p.11-18). The bases for his argument are the following assumptions: (1) A ‘malignant demon’ exists who enables man’s deception; (2) God exists as he provides man the faculty of reason that enables him to evade the deceptions caused by this ‘malignant demon;’ and (3) The deceptions caused by this malignant demon takes the form of sensory deceptions.

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A Comparative Essay on the Machiavellian Philosophy and the Traditional Philosophies of the Ancient Greece

A Comparative Essay on the Machiavellian Philosophy and the Traditional Philosophies of the Ancient Greece

The Definition, History and Importance of Philosophy

Philosophy is both a complex and historical subject as it involves many different fields of human life while at the same time covering many eras of great logicians and philosophers. Philosophy has come a long way from the times of the early civilizations of Babylonia, Egypt, and China (according to Turner) to the known philosophies of Ancient Greece and still, to the more current forms which are are ever so changing and dynamic that more philosophies are thought of or older ones being combined with other philosophies. The difficulty and diversity of philosophy can be attributed to the fact that it is a rebirth of thought, logic and rhetoric. Since there is a diversity of minds throughout the centuries of humanity, then it is only sensible to conclude that philosophy is made from many minds; thus, it is both complex and undefinable in a common concept or term.

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Culture And Anarchy By Mattew Arnold Essay

Culture And Anarchy By Mattew Arnold Essay

… of the human mind and the role of the subconscious in certain psychological/physical manifestations. The power of decadence, for example, inspired Nietzsche to emulate Socrates’ most fundamental principle—that decadence in human culture is directly linked to man’s abandonment of the principles instilled by the “Gods” which inevitably leads to confusion and anarchy in human civilization, and as a result of this “knowledge,” Socrates maintained …

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Nietzsche’s Theory Essay

Nietzsche’s Theory Essay

Nietzsche is one of the most important influences on the modern thinking in philosophy and provided different insights into the most important aspects of human nature. His writings were mainly focused on issues which are still considered as the most important and sensitive issues faced by the humanity. His writings included a great philosophical discussion on the role of religion and morality as well as on the existence of God. His proclamation that God is dead was one of the most profound statements in the history of philosophy as it directly attacked the popular thoughts in Christianity at that time. His basic thoughts on the Christianity and how Christian institutions including Church failed to represent the true nature of the Jesus were great shift into the overall attitude towards Church.

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Normal and Abnormal Psyche Essay

Normal and Abnormal Psyche Essay

Factor which affect personality: free will or determinism

Almost everyone believes, to an extent or another, that all the events have a cause to a certain degree. This view forms the foundation of determinism, and it’s a universally held perception. By a normative extension of logic, it is only rational to assume that if an event takes place, there must be a cause that has directly or indirectly inspired the event to take place.

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Comparison Of Thoreau And Weber Ethic Essay

Comparison Of Thoreau And Weber Ethic Essay

This is a one page paper on Karl Marx and Max Weber’s theories and how they would explain people joining terrorist groups. There are three references used.
Karl Marx believed people should be allowed to enjoy the products of their work. He felt the capitalist economic system prevented this because it divided society into two classes: non-owning workers and non-worker owners. Marx felt this would lead to “alienation” and eventually the workers would revolt against the owners, causing the classes to no longer exist (http://education.yahoo.com/search/be?1b=t&p=url%3Am/marxism.).

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Nozicks Examined Life Essay

Nozicks Examined Life Essay

“The value of a person’s life attaches to it within its limits, while the meaning of his life attaches to it as centered in the wider value context beyond it limits.” These are the very words of Robert Nozick in one of his book Philosophical Explanations.

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The Existence of God: Ontological Argument Essay

The Existence of God: Ontological Argument Essay

Ontological argument of God existence is an attempt to prove that God exists by asserting that existence of God is in essence logically necessary, while on the other hand asserting that God does not exist according to ontological argument is rendered self contradictory (Aquinas, T. & Theologica 19). According to ontological argument, it implies that God existence is grounded in the priori proof that utilizes reason and intuition alone. In other words, the ontological argument emphasize that existence of God can be proved in the sense that, if concept of God can be conceived then He must exist (Anselm 28).

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Main Concepts of Confucianism Essay

Main Concepts of Confucianism Essay

Some cultures turn to age-old teachings, like Confucianism, to guide themselves to the righteous path. Precepts handed down by Chinese philosophers, notable Confucius, guide families in upholding good virtues among their children, and help governments in promoting law and order. These were then handed down to many generations, providing inspiration and serving as guideposts that have empowered people to create positive change not just in the basic institution of society but in the community at large. Confucious sought to bring people in harmony with what he referred to as “the way.” Although Confucianism through the years has melded with other schools of thought and even authoritarian modes of government, rulers who adhered to the original teachings of Confucius nonetheless succeeded in contributing to social cohesion and in instigating peace & order, but only to a certain extent, as evidence also points to the contrary.

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Machiavelli’s Revolution: Modernity as Control and Self-Interest

Machiavelli’s Revolution: Modernity as Control and Self-Interest

Machiavelli represents a major break from the traditions of both classical and medieval social theory. Since the medievals were basing their work to a great extent on either Plato or Aristotle (speaking generally), the classics were merely extended into the medieval period. This paper will seek to describe the nature of this break. All below citations are from Michael Morgan (ed), Classics of Moral and Political Theory, published by Hackett in 2005.

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Machiavelli and Montaigne Essay

Machiavelli and Montaigne Essay

Both Machiavelli and Montaigne represent the Renaissance through what can be called as “radical” ideas during their time. The Renaissance was a time when humanism replaced the medieval scholastic modes. In other words, it was a time when the belief in the capability of human beings to choose for themselves, so to speak, replaced the medieval belief that the destiny of man has already been predetermined. On one hand, Machiavelli espouses the idea that people should exercise their individual expression and practice their intellectual freedom, which is short of saying that people should not hesitate to question and challenge the edicts of formal institutions that govern their lives.

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Machiavelli and the Modern Philosophical Thought Essay

Machiavelli and the Modern Philosophical Thought Essay

Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian philosopher who lived between 1469 and 1527 and had an immense influence on modern philosophical and political thought with his writings. He was a political thinker and a political figure as the Civil Servant of the Florentine Republic and later on the Second Secretary of the Republic of Florence. He is considered the father of modern political theory nowadays. His ideas made a huge difference in modern political thought because they were practical and aimed at changing and not just theorizing which as a result shaped the intellectual atmosphere of Western Civilization. His personal journey influenced his philosophical thoughts in a significant way.

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An Essay on Chiara Lubich’s Philosophy of “I Love Therefore I Am”

An Essay on Chiara Lubich’s Philosophy of “I Love Therefore I Am”

There are many philosophies and movements in the world that sometimes, it seems that everyone wants to do good. Foundations and organizations have pervaded society that even actors and actresses seem to be in the know of all these things. The sad part is whether these movements are really working for the betterment of the world or just for self-gain as to attract financial income or popularity. There are many movements and organizations which are judged as fraud or a screen for more dangerous and dirty practices and vices. As such, people have become wary of individuals trying to do good or trying to preach. With the moral degradation happening on a global scale and the various and countless ethical problems that people are encountering on a daily basis — is there any reason to even believe that things will turn for the better or that people still have moral principles about them?

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The Use Of Water In An Enemy Of The People – Essay

The Use Of Water In An Enemy Of The People – Essay

An Enemy of the People: Stagecraft

An Enemy of the People, authored by Hendrik Ibsen and adapted by Arthur Miller performed by the Playmaker’s Repertory Company, was a tremendous spectacle of production. To enhance the audience’s overall experience, key production elements included superior scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound. Each of these elements was required to support the script in a creative and engaging manner. Every decision made by the designers is entirely relevant. The collective workings of these elements dictate the show’s success of spectacle and overall value. McKay Coble, scene designer, was tasked with sending the story back in time. She used crisp and clean retro furniture to return to the 50’s. The walls were covered in portraits, suggesting that this home was inhabited by a very close nuclear family. Above the stage, there were permanent fixtures of exposed pipes, and along the perimeter of the stage, there were open grates suggesting that water would play a pervasive role in the story.

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Thucydides And Schliemann The Historical Accuracy Of Homer’s Writings

Thucydides And Schliemann The Historical Accuracy Of Homer’s Writings

What strikes you as interesting or surprising about Thucydides’ approach or attitude to the distant past in comparison with Schliemann’s and/or Evans’? Although their methods of gathering evidence differed greatly, Thucydides and Schliemann both had similar opinions over the historical accuracy of Homer’s writings. Thucydides sought out to believe in the history of the past by acknowledging the events that occurred at the time period and correlating it with the oral accounts of them. Thucydides mainly found proof from the oral accounts of the events that were mentioned in Homer’s writings, which I believe to be a bit untrustworthy.

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Transcendentalism Through The Political Thought Of Emerson Thoreau And Fuller

Transcendentalism Through The Political Thought Of Emerson Thoreau And Fuller

During the early to middle years of the nineteenth century, American transcendentalism was born. The term transcendental came from German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He criticizes John Locke, who claimed that knowledge comes through our sensual impressions of the world. Kant feels as though the mind has intuitions of itself that he called transcendental forms. He said that all intuitive thought is transcendental. (The Transcendentalist, 1842) Transcendentalism has a lot of meanings but over time it has essentially remained the same. A 1913 Webster’s Dictionary described transcendentalism as claiming “to have a true knowledge of all things, material and immaterial, human and divine, so far as the mind is capable of knowing them. It is also sometimes used for that which is vague and illusive in philosophy.”

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Valuations Of Individual Well Being With Regards To Social Standing

Valuations Of Individual Well Being With Regards To Social Standing

Mill and Plato share a belief in something like “higher pleasures.” As a result, despite their great differences, both are really trying to do the same thing. Both advocate for a society that allows elites to pursue their own interests, at the expense of others. The result is that both are trying to create a society that is most beneficial to individual members of the elite.

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Legalism in China Essay

Legalism in China Essay

Legalism is one of the most prominent philosophies in ancient China. While ancient Chinese rulers sought to establish a new atmosphere of law and ruthless autocratic power, legalism came to represent a system of philosophic beliefs that were completely different from the majority of earlier Chinese philosophies. It should be noted, that legalism signified a new era of social and economic development in China. Ch’in dynasty worked effectively to teach people the rule of law. Simultaneously, no other philosophy but legalism could shape the basis for continuous modernization and prosperity in the Chinese state – the modernization and prosperity that have later turned China into a powerful political and economic giant.

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Augusto Boal Tragedy Aristotle Essay Example

Augusto Boal Tragedy Aristotle Essay Example

… the truth and challenge the cruelties of the fates, then his fall is doubly inspirational. “The thrust for freedom is the quality in tragedy which exalts. The revolutionary questioning of the stable environment is what terrifies. In no way is the common man debarred from such thoughts or such actions…” (Miller) Oedipus is above all a story about questioning the stability of one’s environment, (as Oedipus seeks the truth about his reality) and in this it is both universal and tragic.

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Apollian Philosophy Essay

Apollian Philosophy Essay

… The roots of modern philosophy lie in Greek philosophy, which was based on logic, metaphysics, ethics and epistemology. Modern philosophy began with the works of philosopher Rene Descartes, who founded and led the intellectual revolution of the Renaissance.
Descartes was determined to rediscover philosophy by shedding the Scholastic method and tracing the roots of Greek philosophy.
The Modern Era is best described as an experimentation in subjectivity in different forms, including individualism, egoism, or solipsism. Even today, all modern philosophies are, in some way, based on Descartes ideas of subjectivism and his rejection of the Scholastic method.
Modern Philosophy was created without institutional influences or traditionalism. One of its most important characteristics of the modern period of philosophy is that it sought to be the result of reason alone, freeing itself from theology and church regulations. Basically, modern philosophers relentlessly search for solid foundations and lean toward subjectivity.
Descartes, Kant, Locke, and Hegel are all example of great thinkers who had a lasting impact on modern philosophy. Descartes took philosophy on a subjective turn, meaning he led modern thinking to examine the situation in which one concentrates on its own mind and its states, viewing thus as the foundation for …

Alexander Hamilton About Haiti Essay

Alexander Hamilton About Haiti Essay

… Acknowledging that Alexander Hamilton’s philosophies formed the roots of today’s Republican Party and that Thomas Jefferson’s philosophies formed the roots of today’s Democratic Party, it is indeed obvious that these two men embraced opposing viewpoints with regard to the American government, economy, and foreign affairs.
Hamilton, wealthy and well educated, favored a strong central government and believed in broadly interpreting the Constitution. This broad interpretation was at the heart of many disagreements with Thomas Jefferson and others like him, who in contrast believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution and favored strong state governments and …

… him, who in contrast believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution and favored strong state governments and individual freedoms.
As Secretary of State, Hamilton’s fiscal policies consolidated power at the national level, thus increasing the economic power of the federal government and reducing that of the states. Hamilton used his broad interpretation of the Constitution to justify a National Bank and the circulation of a national currency. In contrast, Jefferson believed that a central bank was unconstitutional because it was not expressly provided for and was not necessary because the government could collect taxes and function without it …

Alasdair Macintyre Vs Virginia Held Essay Sample

Alasdair Macintyre Vs Virginia Held Essay Sample

… The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre. Specifically, it will discuss MacIntyres criticism of duty-based and goal-based moral theory, and his reasons for preferring a right-based moral theory. It will also include reactions to his views and his virtue-based moral theory.
MACINTYRES MORAL THEORIES
MacIntyre criticizes duty-based and goal-based moral theories on several levels. He feels morals based on duty and goals are not virtuous, and therefore do not belong in moral theory, and that the moral character people develop from living by …

… by these theories is flawed. The child learning to play chess is an excellent example of both of these theories, and why MacIntyre feels they do not work. The child is not learning to play chess because it wants to learn. The child is learning to play chess because MacIntyre wants it to learn, and gives it a goal, candy, and a duty, “play with me.” Eventually he hopes the child will derive satisfaction and learn new skills from playing chess, and then the moral theory will change, and the child will derive enjoyment from the entire practice. Thus, goal …

Similarities and Differences between Thomas S. Kuhn’s and Karl Popper’s Essay

Similarities and Differences between Thomas S. Kuhn’s and Karl Popper’s Essay

Both Thomas S. Kuhn and Karl Popper attempted to construct a theoretical frame which would explain the differences between science and pseudo-science. According to Kuhn, a scientific theory is born through the general consensus of a community of practitioners. This consensus, or paradigm, evolves from previous scientific data. Inside the paradigm, scientists strive to construct a theory that will serve a solution which is known to exist or even empirical data that needs to be supported theoretically. The value of a certain scientific achievement can be verified, in Kuhn’s view, by the existence of a paradigm.

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Science and Mysticism Essay

Science and Mysticism Essay

Morwood, 1999 says that mysticism can be defined in philosophy as a strong belief in supernatural power or powers that controls human destiny, while on the other hand; science is the systematic study of nature and behavior of the universe based on observation, experiment and measurement and the formulation of laws which describe these facts in general terms (1).

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Abstract For Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay Sample

Abstract For Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay Sample

… thoughts or images, violent or terrifying thoughts that may occur to a loved one. These obsessive thoughts are then followed by the performance of compulsive acts meant to respond to these thoughts. Common compulsive acts or compulsions include repetitious washing of the hands or cleaning, too frequent showers, checking, reordering …

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Abraham Maslow And Parenting Essay Example

Abraham Maslow And Parenting Essay Example

… Relation of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to Job Satisfaction
In pursuing a job career, people have many and various motivations and needs that they want answered before considering and taking a particular job. In fact, many research studies in the field of social sciences have been conducted in order to particularly identify the motivations and needs that people have and the explanations/reasons behind each decision an individual makes concerning the decision-making process of choosing a job. These studies led to the formulation of Need Theories of Motivation, wherein the psychologist Abraham Maslow had been one of …

… the formulation of Need Theories of Motivation, wherein the psychologist Abraham Maslow had been one of its primary proponents.
Abraham Maslow’s study on need theories was published in 1943, wherein he introduces to his readers the concept of Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation. In his Hierarchy of Needs, Maslow provides five (5) categories that best reflects an individual’s needs that essentially becomes a motivation. At the lowest rank in Maslow’s hierarchy is Physiological need, which he identifies as man’s most basic need. Physiological needs include food, clothing, and shelter. On the second level is the Safety …

Soren Kierkegaard’s Changes In The Self Essay

Soren Kierkegaard’s Changes In The Self Essay

Kierkegaard conceives of life to proceed in three stages. These are aesthetic, ethical and religious stages. His analysis and discussion of these stages is developmental in the sense that an individual must pass through every stage. The first stage, which is the aesthetic stage, is characterized by eudaemonic pursuit. It is during this stage that man’s actions are focused on bringing self pleasure and happiness (Kierkegaard, 1945). In other words, his actions become fundamentally driven by the quest for pleasure and happiness. Within this stage, there are various other sub-stages which he also has to go through. At the lowest level within this stage is the least sophisticated individual. This is the kid of person who exists mainly to mainly to satisfy his physical senses. This may adopt the form of self-indulgence and an eat, drink and be merry philosophy.

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Abbasid Dynasty Essay Sample

Abbasid Dynasty Essay Sample

… Development Islamic Science
The Islamic empire in the early 6th. centuries were the inheritors of the scientific tradition of late antiquity. They preserved it, elaborated it, and finally, passed it to Europe (Science p3). At this early date, the Islamic dynasty of the Umayyads envinced an interest in science. It was the century that were, for Europeans, the Dark Ages, were, for Muslim scholars,centuries of philosophical and scientific discovery and development. The Arabs at the time not only assimilated the ancient wisdom of Persia, and the classical heritage of Greece,but adapted their own distinctive needs and ways of …

… west of Persia, under the direction of Sind ibn-Ali, and Yahaya ibn-abi-Mansur. Being the Caliphs astronomer, not only that they construct a systematic chart of celestial movements, but also verified the fundamental elements of the Almangest (Hitti 373-375). The astronomers of al-Mamun, the Abbasid Caliph, made many original observations. One of the most outstanding is the measurement of the meridian near Mosul. It was found to be 111,814 meters, and measured a degree of latitude at about 36x north to be 2877 feet (qtd. King 214-215). “The object is to determine the …

Aaron Beck S Primal Essay

Aaron Beck S Primal Essay

… Reaction to Aaron Beck, Victor Frankl and Carl Rogers
In reading the works of Aaron Beck, Victor Frankl and Carl Rogers, I have responded in different ways depending on how I see their ideas in relation to where I am in my own personal development. I feel most comfortable with the ideas of Beck, since this theory seems to have the most similarities with my current stage of personal development. I found the ideas of Rogers to be the most challenging and had a difficult time relating to the theories. I found the ideas of Frankl especially intriguing though I also have a difficult time relating to them. I will now describe my reactions and offer an explanation for them by looking at each of the theorists separately. This will include describing my reaction to the theory, determining why I responded in this way, while relating this to my current stage of personal development.
I was most comfortable with Aaron Becks cognitive therapy. Becks theory involves a person recognizing the thoughts they have that lead to anxiety and then making a conscious effort to change these thoughts and make them more positive. I have used this approach in …

A Tale Of Two Cities And The Princess Bride Loyalty Essay

A Tale Of Two Cities And The Princess Bride Loyalty Essay

… The Princess Bride
William Goldman’s “The Princess Bride” is a tale of time, history, and love. However, because he adds an element of fantasy to the story, his characters are able to withstand all sorts of setbacks and overcome various obstacles.
In this story, Goldman places love above all else, allowing his character to use super-human strength and unusual occurrences to fight in the name …

… never noticed Wesley’s beauty until someone she admired saw it.
Kant believed that the idea of taste simply becomes a matter of personal opinion that reflects more on the viewer than on the object itself. He said that an individual cannot judge true beauty because their judgment is too subjective and not at all universal. Buttercup’s love for Wesley proves Kant’s ethical theory, as …

… of the things that are normally considered good, including happiness, courage, and intelligence, are all qualified goods, as their goodness depends upon being possessed by someone with a good will. In “The Princess Bride”, Wesley’s good points are indeed good as his will is good. This is probably the most important ethical lesson of the story.
Kant believed that a virtuous society must exist if moral …

The Clash of Philosophical ideas in Brothers Karamazov Essay

The Clash of Philosophical ideas in Brothers Karamazov Essay

Dostoevsky’s last opus, Brothers Karamazov, is an extensive investigation into the various philosophical views of the world. Mainly, it is the conflict between reason and faith that modulates the clash of different worldviews. The three brothers, Dimitri, Ivan and Alexei represent different strands of philosophical belief. Thus, the eldest, Dimitri, is a “sensualist” who seems to live for pleasure only, spending his time in banqueting and the pursuit of lovers. Ivan, on the other hand, is an atheist and a rationalist, who does not understand the necessity of suffering in the world.

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Immanuel Kant vs. David Hume: On Knowledge and Causality Essay

Immanuel Kant vs. David Hume: On Knowledge and Causality Essay

The Prolegomena has two related purposes: 1) to defend the integrity of metaphysics as a science, and 2) to forward a new paradigm of knowledge construction. Kant seemed to be concerned more of the first purpose. In the Preface to the book, he said:

“No event has occurred that could have been more decisive for the fate of this science than the attack made upon it by David Hume … Hume proceeded primarily from a single but important concept of metaphysics, namely, that of the connection of cause and effect” (Kant, xvii).

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Would Immanuel Kant Approve of the Invasion of Iraq?

Would Immanuel Kant Approve of the Invasion of Iraq?

This brief paper makes it clear that Kant, solely basing his judgement on the Categorical Imperative (CI), could have never supported the US invasion(s) of Iraq over the past 18 years. There are seven specific points as to why, all of which will be briefly dealt with below. The purpose of this brief essay is to show that there is no way to twist the Kantian doctrine of the Categorical Imperative to justify the various invasions of Iraq that have been led by the United States since the early 1990s.

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Immanuel Kant and David Hume Essay

Immanuel Kant and David Hume Essay

Present essay addresses the issue of interconnection between Hume’s skepticism and Kant’s critical philosophy through the prism of argumentation, Kant puts forward in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics and Critique of Pure Reason, designed to overcome Hume’s doubt about the potential of human cognition.

The thesis is defended that Kant’s argumentation simultaneously proceeds from Hume’s doubt and overcomes it in completely new theory, offering original interpretation of human cognition. Before addressing this particular argumentation, one should outline general philosophical orientations of both discussed philosophers.

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A Free Sample Of A Critique Essay

A Free Sample Of A Critique Essay

… concedes, “All metaphysicians are therefore solemnly and legally suspended
from their occupations till they shall have adequately answered the question, ‘How are synthetic
cognitions a priori possible?’” (1783). The whole of transcendental philosophy, freefrom skepticism, is dependent on the answer.
Having generalized Hume’s skepticism about cause and effect in the natural world to a
question of the possibility of expansive knowledge without references to experience, …

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